Some people may have noticed that the market has tanked even more since Obama was elected. The Dow has lost 14 percent since the election, and the S&P 500 and Nasdaq are also sharply off.
The Wall Street Journal points out that many investors are paralyzed by the idea that Obama will raise taxes in a down market, about the worst thing you can do for an economy. But I still have hope Obama will be pragmatic. When I think about Obama, I keep on thinking about Lula, the popular president in Brazil who started out as a wild-eyed radical and became a moderate, business-oriented centrist once he faced the realities of governing.
There are significant differences. The political culture of Brazil is very different than the United States. There is no real viable free-market political party, for example. Every party is, in terms of rhetoric, to the left of moderate Democrats.
But there are amazing similarities between Lula and Obama. Both grew up in broken homes. Obama has called himself a “mutt” — Lula has used similar terms to describe himself. Both rose in party politics — Lula in the union environment of Sao Paulo, Obama in the Chicago political machine. Both have extremely sharp elbows from dealing with multiple political rivals, both inside their movements and outside.
There are significant differences. Lula is not a mesmerizing speaker and actually uses a low-class Portuguese that Brazilians love to mimic. He is not nearly as well-educated as Obama. Lula has been around Brazilian politics for decades — Obama is relatively new to the scene. And the whole racial issue is not a factor in Brazil.
But the key similarity in my mind is the generalized panic that hit the international and local business community in 2002-2003 with the prospect of Lula’s election. The Brazilian stock market tanked. The real hit 4 to US$1 — it is now about 2.25 to 1 and hit about 1.75 to 1 over the summer — making Brazil one of the most expensive countries in the world for Americans to visit with dollars. But in 2002 and 2003, Brazil was one of the least expensive countries in the world for people earning dollars — right when I lived there. 🙂
Lula, with his ties to Communist groups and radical union past, was considered a huge risk. The fear was that he would nationalize entire industries and be a kind of Brazilian Hugo Chavez. And Lula did very little to dispel these notions while running for office. He said Brazil needed a huge change — the rich needed to be taxed more and wealth needed to be spread around.
But once Lula got in office he discovered that a lot of things the left wanted to change were not possible. Brazilian taxes on business were already obscenely high — it was literally impossible to find any new taxes to slap on businesses. (One study has shown that if Brazilian businesses actually paid all the taxes they are charged, they would pay 120 percent of their revenue in taxes, meaning they would have zero revenue — all of it would go to taxes. So naturally Brazilian businesses spend all their time trying to find ways not to pay the taxes they supposedly owe). In addition, Lula discovered that any huge government programs would bankrupt the country.
So, instead Lula actually cut some taxes and stimulated economic growth. Because of his pragmatic policies, he paid off foreign debt two years earlier than expected. He was overwhelmingly reelected and is still very popular in Brazil.
In terms of social policy, Lula has made some radical changes in Brazil. To the anger of the Catholic church and the growing evangelical community in Brazil, he is generally pro-choice and very pro-gay rights. The battle over social issues in Brazil is very similar to the one taking place in the United States, with Lula clearly and vocally on the side of the “liberals” in Brazil.
Sadly, I predict that Obama will publicly come out in favor of gay marriage sometime during his first term. Obama says he favors the repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act and was against Prop. 8. He is clearly the most pro-choice president ever elected.
As far as the Church is concerned, Lula has been a positive president. There has been no anti-Church backlash in Brazil, and several Mormon legislators have served in a variety of different government posts over the years. Brazilians are amazingly tolerant about religion (in the real sense), and Lula is no exception.
Clearly, the most pressing issue Obama will face is the economy. So far, all of his talk has been about rescuing various dying companies and issuing executive orders that contradict many of Pres. Bush’s executive orders. Lula did the same thing during his interregnum. Once he faced the realities of being in power rather than being in opposition, his policies did a 180-degree turn, at least when it comes to the economy. I hope the same happens with Obama.